Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Monday, September 29, 2008

The Three Layers of SAP BW

SAP BW has three layers:
• Business Explorer: As the top layer in the SAP BW architecture, the Business Explorer (BEx) serves as the reporting environment (presentation and analysis) for end users. It consists of the BEx Analyzer, BEx Browser, BEx Web, and BEx Map for analysis and reporting activities.

• Business Information Warehouse Server: The SAP BW server, as the middle layer, has two primary roles:

• Data warehouse management and administration: These tasks are handled by the production data extractor (a set of programs for the extraction of data from R/3 OLTP applications such as logistics, and controlling), the staging engine, and the Administrator Workbench.

• Data storage and representation: These tasks are handled by the InfoCubes in conjunction with the data manager, Metadata repository, and Operational Data Store (ODS).

• Source Systems: The source systems, as the bottom layer, serve as the data sources for raw business data. SAP BW supports various data sources:

• R/3 Systems as of Release 3.1H (with Business Content) and R/3 Systems prior to Release 3.1H (SAP BW regards them as external systems)
• Non-SAP systems or external systems
• components (such as mySAP SCM, mySAP SEM, mySAP CRM, or R/3 components) or another SAP BW system.


1.0 Introduction

In the fiercely increasing competition amongst corporations it has become mandatory to make quick and sound crucial business decisions based on analysis of business critical data. This is the point where data warehouses come into play. Although many companies are relying on data warehouses, they are still struggling to achieve positive results due to fragmented and inconsistent data. For them SAP’s Business Information Warehouse (BW) provides a complete information factory solution. BW is the central component in the SAP suite of applications with an added advantage of being a software package that can be used in both SAP and non-SAP environments.
2.0 SAP’s BW Information Model: Overview
SAP’s BW information model is based on the core building block of InfoObjects which are used to describe business processes and information requirements. They provide basis for setting up complex information models in multiple languages, currencies, units of measure, hierarchy, etc. The key elements in the SAP’s BW information model are:
• DataSources
• InfoSources
• ODS Objects
• InfoCubes
• InfoProviders
• MultiProviders
Data Sources
DataSources are flat data structures containing data that logically belongs together. They are responsible for extracting and staging data from various source systems.
InfoSources are the group of InfoObjects that belong together from a business point of view. It contains the transactional data obtained from the transactions in online transactional processes (OLTP) and master data such as addresses of customers and organizations, which remain unchanged for longer time period.
ODS objects
An ODS object is a dataset which is formed as a result of merging data from one or more info sources. In it information is stored in the form of flat, transparent database tables that are used for preparing reports and quality assurance purposes.
InfoCubes are multidimensional data storage containers for reporting and analysis of data. They consist of keys figures and characteristics of which latter is organized as dimensions facilitating users to analyze data from various business perspectives such as geographical area or types of sales channel.
InfoProviders refer to all the data objects that are present in the SAP BW systems. These include all the data targets viz. InfoCubes, ODS objects and master data tables along with Info sets, remote Infocubes and MultiProviders.
MultiProvider is a virtual information provider which is a combination of any two physical or virtual info providers. MultiProviders do not contain any data and are used to combine data from different info providers. Their main purpose is to make this data accessible for reports and analysis.
3.0 Analytical View of Business Information Warehouse Model
SAP’s BW is based on "Enhanced Star schema" or "Info Cubes" database design. This database design has a central database table, known as ‘Fact Table’ which is surrounded by associated dimension tables. These dimension tables contain references to the pointer tables that point to the master data tables which in turn contain Master data objects such as customer, material and destination country stored in BW as Info objects. An InfoObjects can contain single field definitions such as transaction data or complex Customer Master Data that hold attributes, hierarchy and customer texts that are stored in their own tables.
Read This Nugget
The BW product is designed to store all business-critical information contained in the R/3 OLTP (online transaction processing) system and other non-SAP systems in a form that is easy to access and analyze using the BW client tools.
The database design used to meet these objectives is an "Enhanced Star Schema" or "InfoCube" (the data against which the end user runs queries).
The info cubes and master data tables that are used in a BW system are generally unique to that system as shown in the figure below:
Figure: SAP BW Database Design

The complexity of the objects in this design leads to the challenge of maintaining up-to-date and accurate data in all the BW data tables. However, loading data into the BW is accomplished by using InfoPackages. InfoPackages are tools for organizing data requests that are extracted from the source system and are loaded into the BW system. With the progress of BW project the number of info packages increases emphasizing the importance of good performance of each info package. Although the DBMS underlying the BW system is monitored by the standard software’s for the R/3 functionality but this leaves a gap between the table spaces and table names as they appear at the DBMS level and the BW application level entities to which these objects belong. To bridge this gap, the new BW functionality for R/3 includes reports that place DBMS objects in a BW context. These reports allow the user to take an object at the DBMS level and associate it with its application-level entity.
In case of any problem in order to enable the administrator to identify the problem the InfoPackages are organized on the basis of the object to which they are transporting data- Info cube, ODS or Master Data. The overall request status for the object is displayed, and an alarm is triggered if any Info Package run from any Info Source fails. In this way, the administrator is able to locate the exact position where a failure is going to impact the users and the BW system. Also, for InfoCubes, Master Data and the ODS to give an overview of the history of requests for the system, the progress of the last N requests through each stage of extraction and load is displayed, and for any failures, the step that failed is displayed. The performance of requests can be monitored by display of performance statistics for each stage of extraction and load in the form of graphs.
4.0 Building SAP BW into multi-tier architecture model in Business Services
Being implemented on top of SAP Web Application Services SAP’s BW provides a multi-tier architecture (figure shown below), along with a complete software development environment, system management tools and additional functionalities such as currency conversion or security. Although it is closely related to SAP R/3, SAP BW is a completely separate software package which comes with automated extraction and loading facilities.
Components of BW architecture
SAP BW is based on integrated metadata concept with metadata being managed by metadata services. SAP’s BW has following layers:
• Extraction, Loading and Transformation (ELT) services layer.
• Storage services layer, with services for storing and archiving information.
• Analysis and access services layer, which provides access to the information stored in SAP BW.
• Presentation services layer, which offers different options for presenting information to end users.
• Administration services.
• Metadata services.
Figure: Multi-tier Architectural Pattern

SAP BW Business Warehouse
- Metadata Modelling -

The administration services in SAP BW can be availed through Administration Workbench (AWB). It is a single point of entry for data warehouse development, administration and maintenance tasks in SAP BW with Metadata modeling component, scheduler and monitor as its main components as described in the figure hereunder:
Figure: Metadata Services Architecture

Metadata modeling: Metadata modeling component is the main entry point for defining the core metadata objects used to support reporting and analysis. This includes everything from defining the extraction process and implementing transformations to defining flat or multidimensional objects for storage of information.
Modeling Features
• Metadata modeling provides a Metadata Repository where all the metadata is stored and a Metadata Manager that handles all the requests for retrieving, adding, changing, or deleting metadata.
• Reporting and scheduling mechanism: Reporting and scheduling are the processes required for the smooth functioning of SAP BW. The various batch processes in the SAP BW need to be planned to provide timely results, avoid resource conflicts by running too many jobs at a time and to take care of logical dependencies between different jobs. These processes are controlled in the scheduler component of AWB. This is achieved by either scheduling single processes independently or defining process chains for complex network of jobs required to update the information available in the SAP BW system. Reporting Agent controls execution of queries in a batch mode to print reports, identify exception conditions and notify users and pre compute results for web templates.
• Administering ETL service layer in multi- tier level: SAP’s ETL service layer provides services for data extraction, data transformation and loading of data. It also serves as the staging area for intermediate data storage for quality assurance purposes. The extraction technology of SAP BW is supported by database management systems of mySAP technology and does not allow extraction from other database systems like IBM, IMS and Sybase. It does not support dBase, MS Access and MS Excel file formats. However, it provides all the functionality required for loading data from non- SAP systems as the ETL services layer provide open interfaces for loading non-SAP data.

Fundamentals of ETL Service Architecture
ETL service comprises of two parts: Staging engine and Storage Service. Staging engine manages staging process for all data received from several source systems. It interfaces with the AWB scheduler and monitor for scheduling and monitoring data load processes. However, Storage Service manages and provides access to data targets in SAP BW and the aggregates that are stored in relational and multidimensional database management systems.
It is true, however, that the extraction technology provided as an integral part of SAP BW is restricted to database management systems supported by mySAP technology and that it does not allow extracting data from other database systems like IBM IMS and Sybase. It also does not support proprietary file formats such as dBase file formats, Microsoft Access file formats, Microsoft Excel file formats, and others. On the other hand, the ETL services layer of SAP BW provides all the functionality required to load data from non-SAP systems in exactly the same way as it does for data from SAP systems. SAP BW does not in fact distinguish between different types of source systems after data has arrived in the staging area. The ETL services layer provides open interfaces for loading non-SAP data.
Extraction at Service Levels
SAP BW can be integrated with other SAP components based on application programming interface (API) service. It provides a framework to enable comprehensive data replication based on data extractors that encapsulate the application logic. Data Extractor fills the extract structure of data source with a data from data source and offers sophisticated handling of changes. In addition to supporting extractors, the service APIs also enable online access via RemoteCube technology and flexible staging for hierarchies. On the other hand SAP provides an open interface called Staging Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI) to extract data from non-SAP sources. BAPI serves the purpose of connecting third- party ETL tools to SAP BW and provides access to SAP BW objects which facilitates use of customer extraction routines. Data can be extracted at the database level by using: DB connect, flat files and XML. DB connect facilitates extraction directly from DBMS. In this the metadata files are loaded by replicating metadata tables and views into the metadatory repository of SAP BW. Data can also be uploaded from flat files by creating routines for extraction of data and XML files can be extracted through XML via Administrator Workbench in SAP BW.
Read This Nugget
SAP BW provides three ways to extract data at the database or file level: DB Connect, flat file transfer, and XML. SAP BW provides flexible capabilities for extracting data directly from RDBMS tables using DB Connect.

SAP BW Business Warehouse
- ETL Components -

Components of ETL Services at Database of File Level
• Operational Data Store: It stores detailed data and supports tactical, day-to-day decision making. A SAP view ODS as a near real-time informational environment that supports operational reporting by interacting with existing transactional systems, data warehouses, or analytical applications. SAP BW allows flexible access to data in the ODS, the data warehouse, and the multidimensional models.

• Data Marts: A data mart provides the data needed by a decentralized function, department, or business area. You need to weight the pros and cons before developing a data mart. For example, a data mart can be implemented faster and cheaper than a data warehouse, sometimes costing 80% less than a full data warehouse. But as data marts proliferate, the cost advantages can disappear. The IT organization must maintain the individual data marts and the multitude of ETL and warehouse management processes that go with them. Multiple data marts can complicate data integration efforts, increase the amount of inconsistent data, require more business rules, and create the data stovepipes that data warehousing strives to eliminate.

• Interfaces: The data mart interface enables users to transfer and update transactional data and metadata from one SAP BW system to other SAP BW systems.

• Open Hub Services: The open hub service is used to share data in SAP BW with non-SAP data marts, analytical applications, and other applications. This service controls data distribution and maintains data consistency across systems. With the open hub service, actual data and the corresponding metadata are retrieved from InfoCubes or ODS objects.

SAP BW Business Warehouse
- Storage Service Layers -

Understanding the role of storage services layers in architectural model
• Master data manager: Master Data Manager generates the master data infrastructure containing master data tables as well as master data update and the retrieval routines. It also maintains master data and provides access to master data for use by SAP BW reporting components and for exporting to other data warehouse services for analysis and access services.

• ODS Manager: ODS manager generates ODS data object infrastructure. It maintains an active data table for maintaining ODS object data, a change log for every update applied to the ODS object data as part of application process and provides access to ODS object data for SAP BW reporting and analysis functionality.

• Archiving Manager: The Archiving Manager stores unused, dormant data in an archive with the help of Archive Development Kit (ADK). ADK is connected to the SAP BW via Archiving Manager. It also keeps track of relevant metadata such as Infocubes and ODS objects which possibly will change over time.

• InfoCube Manager: It serves the function of generating the InfoCube Meta tables. It maintains InfoCube data tables and provides access to InfoCube data tables for SAP BW reporting and analysis.

SAP BW Business Warehouse
- Integration -

5.0 Analysis of BW support navigation facilities integrated to BW 3.0

OLAP BAPI: SAP BW 3.0 comes with the OLAP BAPI Interface (OBI) which provides functions that can be used by third party reporting tools to access BW Info cubes. It provides an open interface to access any information that is available through OLAP engine.
Integrating with XML: OLAP BAPI serves as the basis for the SAP implementation of XML for analysis. It is an XML API based on Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) designed for standardized access to an analytical data provider over the web. The XML interface introduced with SAP BW 3.0 release accepts XML data streams compliant with the SOAP. Unlike all other SAP BW interfaces in XML interface the actual data transfer is initiated by the source system.
Open Hub Services: The Open Hub Service allows controlled distribution of consistent data from any SAP BW InfoProvider to flat files, database tables and other applications with full support for delta management, selections, projections and aggregation. Open Hub Services have InfoSpokes as their core metadata objects. With the SAP 3.0 release InfoSpokes have become generally available.
Content Management Framework: The SAP Web Content Management Server stores unstructured information that users can go through and use efficiently. Integration with the SAP BW content management framework provides an integrated view on structured and unstructured information to the end user.

6.0 Conclusion

With the growing network of processes and systems, the need for efficient management support systems is also increasing. However for this it is not enough to place a company strategically and give guidelines for its further development. Instead it is essential to have real time analysis and graphical visualization of the key performance indicators. In SAP BW automatic assimilation and analysis of information is possible. BW gives a holistic view of the company by considering both the financial data and non- financial assets of the company. As corporate planning is often not done in one common planning tool (e.g. turnover plan in a sales system and cost center plan in excel) studying interdependencies and coordination among them has become even more tedious. Thus the strategic management system must establish a planning process through all levels of planning in the company to make the data available for all responsible persons in one system. With SAP BW it is possible to upload data of different planning tools, manipulate planning data and write back changed data to the operational system. SAP BW can also be used as early warning system to inform the responsible persons about critical indicators on the basis of already defined thresholds of these indicators.

7.0 Outlook

SAP BW has the usual data warehouse layers accompanied by administrative services through the Administrative Workbench. It allows exchange of data and metadata with other systems and tools in the case of SAP-specific interfaces like Staging BAPI and the OLAP BAPI and supports other industry standard interfaces allowing easy access to data and metadata maintained in SAP. Also, the metadata objects that are available in SAP BW are used to build Operational data stores, data warehouses and info marts. Thus, the services provided by SAP with SAP BW makes it a major tool for complete corporate information and strategy management.

Records Held by Sachin Tendulkar*

Records Held by Sachin Tendulkar*

1. Highest Run scorer in the ODI

2. Most number of hundreds in the ODI 41

3. Most number of nineties in the ODI

4. Most number of man of the matches(56) in the ODI's

5. Most number of man of the series(14) in ODI's

6. Best average for man of the matches in ODI's

7 First Cricketer to pass 10000 run in the ODI

8. First Cricketer to pass 15000 run in the ODI

9. He is the highest run scorer in the world cup (1,796 at an average of 59.87 as on 20 March 2007)

10. Most number of the man of the matches in the world cup

11. Most number of runs 1996 world cup 523 runs in the 1996 Cricket World Cup at an average of 87.16

12. Most number of runs in the 2003 world cup 673 runs in 2003 Cricket World Cup, highest by any player in a single Cricket World Cup

13. He was Player of the World Cup Tournament in the 2003 Cricket World Cup.

14. Most number of Fifties in ODI's 87

15. Appeared in Most Number of ODI's 407

16. He is the only player to be in top 10 ICC ranking for 10 years.

17. Most number of 100's in test's 38

18. He is one of the three batsmen to surpass 11,000 runs in Test cricket, and the first Indian to do so

19. He is thus far the only cricketer to receive the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, India's highest sporting honor

20. In 2003, Wisden rated Tendulkar as d No. 1 and Richards at No. 2 in all time Greatest ODI player

21. In 2002, Wisden rated him as the second greatest Test batsman after Sir Donald Bradman.

22. he was involved in unbroken 664-run partnership in a Harris Shield game in 1988 with friend and team mate Vinod Kambli,

23. Tendulkar is the only player to score a century in all three of his Ranji Trophy, Duleep Trophy and Irani Trophy debuts

24. In 1992, at the age of 19, Tendulkar became the first overseas born player to represent Yorkshire

25. Tendulkar has been granted the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award and Padma Shri by Indian government. He is the only Indian cricketer to get all of them.

26. Tendulkar has scored over 1000 runs in a calendar year in ODI's 7 times

27. Tendulkar has scored 1894 runs in calendar year in ODI's most by any batsman

28. He is the highest earning cricketer in the world

29. He has the least percentage of the man of the matches awards won when team looses a match. Out of his 56 man of the match awards only 5 times India has lost.

30. Tendulkar most number man of match awards(10) against Australia

31. In August of 2003, Sachin Tendulkar was voted as the "Greatest Sportsman" of the country in the sport personalities category in the Best of India poll conducted by Zee News.

32. In November 2006, Time magazine named Tendulkar as one of the Asian Heroes.

33. In December 2006, he was named "Sports person of the Year

34. The current India Poised campaign run by The Times of India has nominated him as the Face of New India next to the likes of Amartya Sen and Mahatma Gandhi among others.

35. Tendulkar was the first batsman in history to score over 50 centuries in international cricket

36. Tendulkar was the first batsman in history to score over 75 centuries in international cricket:79 centuries

37. Has the most overall runs in cricket, (ODIs+Tests+Twenty20s), as of 30 June 2007 he had accumulated almost 26,000 runs overall.

38. Is second on the most number of runs in test cricket just after Brian Lara

39. Sachin Tendulkar with Sourav Ganguly hold the world record for the maximum number of runs scored by the opening partnership. They have put together 6,271 runs in 128 matches

40. The 20 century partnerships for opening pair with Sourav Ganguly is a world record

41. Sachin Tendulkar and Rahul Dravid hold the world record for the highest partnership in ODI matches when they scored 331 runs against New Zealand in 1999

42. Sachin Tendulkar has been involved in six 200 run partnerships in ODI matches - a record that he shares with Sourav Ganguly and Rahul Dravid

43. Most Centuries in a calendar year: 9 ODI centuries in 1998

44. Only player to have over 100 innings of 50+ runs (41 Centuries and 87 Fifties)(as of 18th Nov, 2007)

45. the only player ever to cross the 13,000-14,000 and 15,000 run marks IN ODI.

46. Highest individual score among Indian batsmen (186* against New Zealand at Hyderabad in 1999).

47. The score of 186* is listed the fifth highest score recorded in ODI matches

48. Tendulkar has scored over 1000 ODI runs against all major Cricketing nations.

49. Sachin was the fastest to reach 10,000 runs taking 259 innings and has the highest batting average among batsmen with over 10,000 ODI runs

50. Most number of Stadium Appearances: 90 different Grounds

51. Consecutive ODI Appearances: 185

52. On his debut, Sachin Tendulkar was the second youngest debutant in the world

53. When Tendulkar scored his maiden century in 1990, he was the second youngest to score a century

54. Tendulkar's record of five test centuries before he turned 20 is a current world record

55. Tendulkar holds the current record (217 against NZ in 1999/00 Season) for the highest score in Test cricket by an Indian when captaining the side

56. Tendulkar has scored centuries against all test playing nations.[7] He was the third batman to achieve the distinction after Steve Waugh and Gary Kirsten

57. Tendulkar has 4 seasons in test cricket with 1000 or more runs - 2002 (1392 runs), 1999 (1088 runs), 2001 (1003 runs) and 1997 (1000 runs).[6] Gavaskar is the only other Indian with four seasons of 1000+ runs

58. He is second most number of seasons with over 1000 runs in world.

59. On 3 January 2007 Sachin Tendulkar (5751) edged past Brian Lara's (5736) world record of runs scored in Tests away from home

60. Tendulkar and Brian Lara are the fastest to score 10,000 runs in Test cricket history. Both of them achieved this in 195 innings

61. Second Indian after Sunil Gavaskar to make over 10,000 runs in Test matches

62. Became the first Indian to surpass the 11,000 Test run mark and the third International player behind Allan Border and Brian Lara.

63. Tendulkar is fourth on the list of players with most Test caps. Steve Waugh (168 Tests), Allan Border (158 Tests), Shane Warne (145 Tests) have appeared in more games than Tendulkar

64. Tendulkar has played the most number of Test Matches(144) for India (Kapil Dev is second with 131 Test appearances).

65. First to 25,000 international runs

66. Tendulkar's 25,016 runs in international cricket include 14,537 runs in ODI's, 10,469 Tests runs and 10 runs in the lone Twenty20 that India has played.

67. On December 10, 2005, Tendulkar made his 35th century in Tests at Delhi against Sri Lanka. He surpassed Sunil Gavaskar's record of 34 centuries to become the man with the most number of hundreds in Test cricket.

68. Tendulkar is the only player who has 150 wkts and more than 15000 runs in ODI

69. Tendulkar is the only player who has 40 wkts and more than 11000 runs in Tests

70. Only batsman to have 100 hundreds in the first class cricket
Brighter Planet's 350 Challenge

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Birk Economics - Makes sense

I don’t know this Birk guy, but I sure like his logic… Something for the
Capitalists. Something for the “Spread the wealth Socialists.” Makes sense to me!
The Birk Economic Recovery Plan

Hi, Pals!

I’m against the $85,000,000,000.00 bailout of AIG.

Instead, Im in favor of giving $85,000,000,000 to America in
a We Deserve It Dividend.

To make the math simple, lets assume there are 200,000,000
bonafide U.S. Citizens 18+.

Our population is about 301,000,000 +/- counting every man, woman
and child. So 200,000,000 might be a fair stab at adults 18 and up..

So divide 200 million adults 18+ into $85 billon that equals $425,000.00.

My plan is to give $425,000 to every person 18+ as a
We Deserve It Dividend.

Of course, it would NOT be tax free.
So lets assume a tax rate of 30%.

Every individual 18+ has to pay $127,500.00 in taxes.
That sends $25,500,000,000 right back to Uncle Sam.

But it means that every adult 18+ has $297,500.00 in their pocket.
A husband and wife has $595,000.00.

What would you do with $297,500.00 to $595,000.00 in your family?
~Pay off your mortgage housing crisis solved.
~Repay college loans what a great boost to new grads
~Put away money for college itll be there
~Save in a bank create money to loan to entrepreneurs.
~Buy a new car create jobs
~Invest in the market capital drives growth
~Pay for your parents medical insurance health care improves
~Enable Deadbeat Dads to come clean or else

Remember this is for every adult U S Citizen 18+ including the folks
who lost their jobs at Lehman Brothers and every other company
that is cutting back. And of course, for those serving in our Armed

If were going to re-distribute wealth lets really do it… instead
of trickling out a puny $1000.00 (vote buy) economic incentive that is being proposed
by one of our candidates for President.

If were going to do an $85 billion bailout, lets bail out every adult U S
Citizen 18+!

As for AIG liquidate it.
Sell off its parts.
Let American General go back to being American General.
Sell off the real estate.
Let the private sector bargain hunters cut it up and clean it up.

Here’s my rationale: We deserve it and AIG doesnt.

Sure, its a crazy idea that can never work.

But can you imagine the Coast-To-Coast Block Party!?

How do you spell Economic Boom?

I trust my fellow adult Americans to know how to use the $85 Billion
We Deserve It Dividend more than I do the geniuses at AIG or in
Washington DC.

And remember, The Birk plan only really costs $59.5 Billion because
$25.5 Billion ……… returned instantly in taxes to Uncle Sam.

Ahhh…I feel so much better getting that off my chest.

Kindest personal regards,


T. J. Birkenmeier, A Creative Guy & Citizen of the Republic

PS: Feel free to pass this along to your pals as its either good for a laugh, or
a tear.

But in any event is a very sobering thought on how to best use $85 Billion!!

Thursday, March 6, 2008


JALSA........................PAVAN'S GONNA ROCKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Thursday, October 11, 2007


WHY EMPLOYEES LEAVE ORGANISATIONS?.....- Azim Premji, CEO- WiproEvery company faces the problem of people leaving the company for better pay or profile.

Early this year, Mark, a senior software designer, got an offer from a prestigious international firm to work in its India operationsdeveloping specialized software. He was thrilled by the offer.

He had heard a lot about the CEO. The salary was great. The company had all the right systems in place employee-friendly human resources(HR) policies, a spanking new office,and the very best technology,even a canteen that served superb food.

Twice Mark was sent abroad for training. "My learning curve is the sharpest it's ever been," he said soon after he joined.

Last week, less than eight months after he joined, Mark walked out of the job.

Why did this talented employee leave ?
Arun quit for the same reason that drives many good people away.

The answer lies in one of the largest studies undertaken by the Gallup Organization.
The study surveyed over a million employees and 80,000 managers and was published in a book called "First Break All The Rules".

It came up with this surprising finding:
If you're losing good people, look to their immediate boss. Immediate boss is the reason people stay and thrive in an organization. And he's the reason why people leave.When people leave they take knowledge, experience and contacts with them, straight to the competition.

"People leave managers not companies," write the authors Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman.

Mostly manager drives people away? HR experts say that of all the abuses, employees find humiliation the most intolerable. The first time, an employee may not leave, but a thought has been planted. The second time, that thought gets strengthened. The third time, he looks for another job.

When people cannot retort openly in anger, they do so by passive aggression.
By digging their heels in and slowing down. By doing only what they are told to do and no more. By omitting to give the boss crucial information.
Dev says: "If you work for a jerk, you basically want to get him into trouble. You don 't have your heart and soul in the job."

Different managers can stress out employees in different ways - by being too controlling, too suspicious, too pushy, too critical, but they forget that workers are not fixed assets, they are free agents.When this goes on too long, an employee will quit - often over a trivial issue.

Talented men leave. Dead wood doesn't.

Suraj Kumar Kotla

Why to fly by Kingfisher Airlines...

Why to fly by Kingfisher Airlines...

1. It's not expensive.

2 . Tickets are easily available.

3 .Good Service

4 . And

Meet the Chak de Girls!!!!!!!!! CHAK DE INDIA

Meet the Chak de Girls!!!!!!!!! CHAK DE INDIA....................

Tuesday, October 9, 2007

Power Star Pawan Kalyan..........My Favourite hero.....

Venkatesh in Tulasi................

The Rise and Fall of Indian Socialism (Why India embraced economic reform)

India became the poster child for post–World War II socialism in the Third World. Steel, mining, machine tools, water, telecommunications, insurance, and electrical plants, among other industries, were effectively nationalized in the mid-1950s as the Indian government seized the commanding heights of the economy.

Other industries were subjected to such onerous regulation that innovation came to a near standstill. The Industries Act of 1951 required all businesses to get a license from the government before they could launch, expand, or change their products. The government imposed import tariffs to discourage international trade, and domestic businesses were prevented from opening foreign offices in a doomed attempt to build up domestic industries. Foreign investment was subject to stifling restrictions.

But the planners failed. Manufacturing never took off, and the economy meandered; India lagged behind all its trade-embracing contemporaries. Between 1950 and 1973, Japan’s economy grew 10 times faster than India’s. South Korea’s economy grew five times faster. India’s economy crawled along at 2 percent per year between 1973 and 1987, while China’s growth lept to 8 percent and began matching rates for Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other Asian tigers. Even as that reality became clear as early as the late 1960s and early 1970s, India’s policy makers refused to give up on economic planning. Experts and elected officials settled for what they called the “Hindu Rate of Growth,” which, according to official figures, was sluggish at about 3 to 4 percent per year. That would be respectable for a developed country like the United States or Germany, since they start from a higher economic base. But for a country like India, it’s abysmal.

Attitudes finally began to change in the 1980s, as India’s persistent budget deficits forced austerity measures in the middle of the decade. A foreign exchange crisis in 1991 precipitated major shifts in public policy thinking. The government brought spending in line with revenues and moved away from fixed exchange rates, allowing the Indian currency to reflect world prices. (Fixing exchange rates at a government-determined price tended to overvalue the rupee on world markets, discouraging foreign investment.) The government began to open the door to foreign investment while Indian companies were allowed to borrow in foreign capital markets and invest abroad. Inflation was brought under control.

The new policies fostered a booming information technology industry, which grew to billion-dollar status in the mid-1990s and exceeded $6 billion in revenues by 2001. The technology sector didn’t suffer from as many burdensome regulations as, say, steel and airlines. Nor did its success hinge on traditional utilities and basic infrastructure, depending more on new technology such as satellites. A 2004 World Bank report notes that “Services, the least regulated sector in the economy continue to be the strongest performer, while manufacturing, the most regulated sector, is the weakest.”

At first, Indians were simply subcontractors to more sophisticated multinational companies. Then Indian companies began to generate new technologies on their own as they tapped into the global marketplace. The software used to power Palm Pilots, for example, was developed by an Indian firm, not outsourced to technicians or programmers. Today 1,600 tech companies, including the billion-dollar multinationals Infosys and Wipro, export products and services from India’s high-tech capital, Bangalore. U.S. companies with major Indian investments include Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, and Oracle. While I.T. exports led the industry’s early growth, future growth is expected to be based on the expansion of the domestic economy.

Furthermore, India’s regulatory apparatus was crafted from a kinder, gentler form of socialism. For one thing, more than 90 percent of its workforce is in the informal sector, largely untouched by the regulations perpetuated by the federal government in Delhi and the state and regional governments. Furthermore, India is a liberal democracy, bounded by a constitution and a broad-based cultural tolerance for different lifestyles and points of view. Those same factors—grassroots respect for trade, constitutional governance, and cultural tolerance of diversity—have contributed to the rise of another industry symbolic of a progressive, dynamic economy: film and entertainment. “Bollywood’s” movie output rivals that of Hollywood and Hong Kong.
The key to further progress will be leveraging the country’s comparative economic advantage in information technology and services. “India has many of the key ingredients for making this transition,” notes a 2005 report from the World Bank Finance and Private Sector Development Unit. “It has a critical mass of skilled, English-speaking knowledge workers, especially in the sciences. It has a well-functioning democracy. Its domestic market is one of the world’s largest. It has a large and impressive Diaspora, creating valuable knowledge linkages and networks.”

As robust as India’s growth is, it probably could do much better. It will take a continued commitment to open trade to achieve higher growth rates, and it’s still unknown whether India has the political commitment to stay the course.

(Source: Magazine)